Curitiba Creators Portrayal
The images displayed here are snapshots of some of the
most important people who made Curitiba what the city
is today, a Green City, one of The most
livable cities in the world.
||Architect and Civil
Engineer Jaime Lerner has dedicated his life to Curitiba.
He is one of the most important characters in the historic
transformation processes that made Curitiba one of the most
livable cities in the world.
In 1962, right after graduating as an Urban Architect,
Lerner was invited by the Mayor Ivo Arzua to work with the
director of the Department of Urbanism of Curitiba, Ari
de Jesus Silva. Ironically, Lerner tells us that Engineer
Silva said to him that urban planning developments were
not possible because Curitiba did not have money for a single
eminent domain property purchase. Today one of the great
merits of Curitiba is due to the fact that the city budget
has always been low, but that did not prevent urban innovations
projects. Around 1963, Lerner joined a group of people ,
Lubomir Ficisnki, Luiz Forte Neto, Jose Maria Gandolfi,
Almir Fernandes, Franchette Richbieter, and Domingos Bongestabs
to write the Preliminary Plan of Curitiba. In 1965, the
Institute of Urban Research and Planning of Curitiba (IPPUC)
was created to assist the city. In 1968, Jaime Lerner was
IPPUCs president. In the early 1970s, Lerner
was appointed twice mayor of Curitiba (Brazil was under
the dictatorship regime without direct election), directly
elected once, and one time elected state of Paraná
Governor. Lerner invited the engineers and architects to
join him in implementing and applying the Preliminary Plan
to develop the Curitiba Master Plan right at the beginning
of his first administration. In the hands of Jaime Lerner
and his creators portrayed here, along with Hitoshi Nakamura,
Abrão Assad, and Osvaldo Navarro Alves, Curitiba
became what the city is today, a world class model.
||Civil Engineer Nicolau
Kluppel has been working to make Curitiba a better
place to live since 1950. It was from the development of his
brilliant ideas back in 1966/67 that Curitiba gained the parks
and the recycling program.
Kluppel, during the administration of Mayor Jaime Lerner,
began a recycling program that rewarded Curitiba with a
United Nations award in 1990. The program consisted
of having the population collect waste, or Trash that
is not trash, and exchanges it for transportation
passes. Immediately after the positive response from the
population, Kluppel created a recycling station, where trash
has been separated, packed, and sold to private companies.
The income generated goes to charity programs run by the
citys first lady. The program, in addition to alleviating
the landfill problem, helps the city to generate funds to
assist impoverished people. Today the county recycling program
still exists; however, it rapidly became a profitable business
for many private companies that started buying the waste.
The program has evolved into a parallel big business, which
has spread to other states in Brazil. The trash that
is not trash idea was so successful that it became
the only source of income for many families in Curitiba
and many other areas as well. Kluppels ideas - the
first of its kind in the world - transformed Curitiba into
a pioneer in recycling.
Kluppels parks were not intentionally designed to
give the city beautiful green areas; the main point was
to resolve flood problems; however, it enhanced other areas.
The design of each park varies according to the natural
course of the river along the riverbanks; they all have
a lake, which is an excavated permanent flood control area
to retain rainwater. In addition to this utility, these
areas became beautiful recreational parks for Curitibas
citizens and tourists. His work has also transformed problematic
areas into valuable ones, resulting in increased real estate
values and green space from seven square meter per inhabitant
in the 1960s to fifty square meters per inhabitant
by the end of 1990s. In contrast to the international
requirement of only twelve square meters per inhabitant,
Curitiba is a truly green city at fifty square meters. Kluppel
still works to this day to improve Curitibas and other
urban problems. He has just created another own of its kind
in the world system to control city floods.
|| Architect Rafael
Dely is the father of the extraordinary Trinary Road
System design, which is known in the United States as Bus
Rapid Transit (BRT) system that makes Curitiba, a city of
almost two million inhabitants, an almost traffic free city.
Dely created the Trinary Road System to enhance public
transportation and reduce growing traffic problems. The
design consists of three parallel roads, each a block apart.
The two roads on the side are for cross-city traffic called
Rapidas (speedy street). The middle road has three sections,
where the center lanes (Canaletas) are designated exclusively
to high-density buses, and the outer lanes for local traffic.
The middle road center section, which was created and has
existed exclusively and successfully in Curitiba for over
thirty years, is the BRT. This system has been partially
implemented in Los Angeles, Seattle, Honolulu, Boulder,
Reston, and other cities around the world.
The creator Dely says that Paris was his inspiring city,
but it was observing the pedestrian-dedicated streets in
Rotterdam, Holland that the idea of the Trinary Road Design
came about. He considers Curitiba and its administration
as a great success of multifaceted operation stating that
his and other successful projects occurred because neither
he nor the other members of the team were specialists. Dely
believes that many specialists think the world spins around
their specialties, which reduces creativity greatly. Dely
has served as President of numerous organizations, including
Institute of Urban Research and Planning of Curitiba (IPPUC),
Brazilian Habitation Company (COHAB), and QUAPAR, a State
run related organization. In these organizations, he has
implemented tremendous changes. The most significant ones
· Autogestão is direct financing that allows
citizens to build their own houses according to their own
design. Through the program, houses are built quickly and
citizens feel happy. In addition to have individualized
houses, people are happy pay for something they built, said
Dely. Such growing community involvement has had profound
psychological and social effects in creating a positive
attitude toward city government.
· Vilas Rurais are new villages developed to reduce
migration by providing rural people with homes, farms, health,
education, especially for their little ones, and jobs -
In other words, an opportunity for a better quality of life.
Dely thought if services and opportunities were provided
where one lives, migration would be greatly reduced, giving
the city more time and varied options to properly accommodate
the ones who will come anyway. The program was successful.
The Trinary Road System is his most significant project
to me because it improved public transportation reliability,
reduced traffic and commuting time. It eliminated the problems
of 4-way stoplights, dangerous left turns that can halt
traffic for many miles, and reduced oil consumption and
pollution by taking many cars out of the streets.
Dely now works as a consultant for many cities around the
world, helping them to develop transportation systems that
fit their needs.
Ceneviva is the designer of many buses that run on
Curitibas street. An architect graduated from University
of Architecture and Urbanism of Curitiba he has been with
Mayor Jaime Lerner since he was a student in 1962.
In 1971, he joined the team led by Jaime Lerner. His first
job was to develop land use directives. Ceneviva states
that the teams main objective was to develop Curitiba,
keeping in mind three basic directives: land use, transportation,
and roadway system. He believes all city planning needs
to be from these three directives to function properly.
Ceneviva was IPPUCs President when the Rede Integrada
de Transporte System was implemented in 1979 - The first
of its kind in the world system. He was president of URBS
for eight years. Throughout these years of services for
Curitibas transportation, Ceneviva designed the public
transportation buses such as the Speedy Bus (Ligeirinho),
then the Articulated, which was the first bus designed to
run in the dedicated lanes (Canaletas), and the long Biarticulated,
which is the equivalent of a light rail system, but on wheels.
Today, Ceneviva works to improve the transportation system,
which demand has grown considerably from 50,000 passengers
per corridor per day to 15,000 per hour, per direction.
He has just finished a new design for the dedicated lanes
to improve efficiency to meet new public transportation
demand, in Curitiba. More details on film Urban Solutions
from Curitiba, Brazil by Giovanni Vaz Del Bello.
||Civil Engineer Cassio
Tanigushi has been working for Curitiba since 1971.
He started as president of URBS, and then was elected two
terms mayor of Curitiba. Under his URBS presidency, the Rodoferroviaria
(Bus-train Station) of Curitiba and the Industrial City were
established. However, the most important things came during
his two terms as mayor of Curitiba. Tanigushi conceived a
project that has enhanced Curitibas social development
greatly to this day. Among them is Linhão de Emprego,
which includes Linhas de Oficio, Barracão Industrial,
etc. a multi-faceted trainee project to employ economically
distressed people and help some to create small and micro
businesses as well. He is one of the most known and loved
politician among Curitibas citizens.
Currently Tanigushi works for the United Nations as a
consultant in the area of social structures for cities around
the world, a program similar to the training program for
politicians and planners that Curitiba started about 20